Jeffrey H. Bergstrand is professor of finance in the Mendoza College of Business and a concurrent professor of economics at the University of Notre Dame, where he is also a Kellogg Institute for International Studies faculty fellow. He is best known for his early formal theoretical foundations for the “gravity equation” in international trade, which is now the empirical workhorse for studying international trade, foreign direct investment, and migration flows, and the effects of natural and policy frictions on these flows.

More recently, he has explored factors that explain the probability that pairs of countries have economic integration agreements, the timing of the formation of such agreements, and the impact of such agreements on countries’ trade. His research team maintains the NSF-Kellogg Institute Data Base on Economic Integration Agreements, which is used by researchers around the world.

Bergstrand has authored over 50 papers on determinants of international trade flows, foreign direct investment, multinational firm behavior, and real exchange rates in journals such as the American Economic Review and Journal of International Economics. His research has placed him in the top 2 percent of economists in the world, as measured by the Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) project. 

An economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston from 1981 to 1986, he has consulted with the US, European Union, and Swiss governments on the impacts of economic integration agreements on international trade and foreign direct investment flows and his methodologies continue to influence governments’ policy analyses.

Bergstrand is past president of the International Economics and Finance Society, a global professional society of international trade and finance economists. He holds a PhD from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.


Thematic Interests

My research focuses on determinants of international trade flows, especially gravity equations of trade, as well as determinants of and impacts of economic integration agreements on trade flows. I also study determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks, especially gravity equations of FDI, and multinational enterprises' behavior.

Research Tags


Journal Articles

Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., "Putting Canada in the penalty box: Trade and welfare effects of eliminating North American Free Trade Agreement," (with Scott L. Baier and John P. Bruno), The World Economy, (December 2019), Volume 42, Issue 12, Special Issue: Global Policy Review.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., “Heterogeneous Effects of Economic Integration Agreements,” (with Scott L. Baier and Matthew Clance),  Journal of Development Economics, vol. 135, November 2018.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., “Economic Determinants of the Timing of Preferential Trade Agreement Formations and Enlargements,” (with Peter Egger and Mario Larch), Economic Inquiry, vol. 54, no. 1, January 2016.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., “Should TPP Be Formed? On the Potential Economic, Governance, and Conflict-Reducing Impacts of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement,” East Asian Economic Review (lead article), vol. 20, September 2016.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., “Preliminary Examination of Heterogeneous Effects on International Trade of Economic Integration Agreements,” in Andreas Dur and Manfred Elsig (eds.), Trade Cooperation: The Purpose, Design and Effects of Preferential Trade Agreements, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., “Economic Integration Agreements, Border Effects, and Distance Elasticities in the Gravity Equation,” (with Mario Larch and Yoto V. Yotov), European Economic Review, vol. 78, August 2015.
Coauthors. "The New Regionalism: Causes and Consequences," (with Scott Baier), Integration and Trade/Inter-American Development Bank (Winter 2007)

Book Chapters


Other Accomplishments & Recognitions

President, International Economics and Finance Society (IEFS) - 2015-17

Visiting Scholar, Indian Institute for Foreign Trade, Kolkata, 2013

Visiting Scholar, Singapore Management University, 2012

Visiting Scholar, ETH University, Zurich, Switzerland, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Visiting Scholar, CESifo, Munich, Germany, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011

Visiting Scholar, European Commission, Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs Brussels, Belgium, July 2004

National Science Foundation Grant 0351154, “Causes and Consequences of the Growth of Regionalism,” July 2004 – June 2009

Bhagwati Award in 2003 from Journal of International Economics, Best Paper for 2001-2002, for “The Growth of World Trade: Tariffs, Transport Costs, and Income Similarity.”

Listed in RePEc among top 3% of economists in the world; top 1% in international trade in the world (http://ideas.repec.org/e/pbe138.html).

Listed beginning in 2003 on Harvard University’s Global Trade Negotiations Individual Researchers
webpage linking my webpage to the GTN webpage

Visiting Scholar, DIW, Berlin, Germany, 2001.

Visiting Scholar, Austrian Institute for Economic Research, Vienna, Austria, 2001.

Editorial Board, Review of International Economics, 1996-present. (Associate Editor, 1996-2003).

Visiting Scholar, Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 1998.

Executive MBA Outstanding Teacher of the Year Award, 1997, 2005. MBA Outstanding Teacher of the Year Award, 1991



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