Former Kellogg Institute Visiting Fellow James Loxton (2014-15) has a new article in the Journal of Democracy called, "The Puzzle of Panamanian Exceptionalism."

The article explores Panama’s success since the overthrow of Noriega, highlighting several puzzling features: it is a rare case of successful democratization by military invasion; it is one of the world’s most unlikely cases of authoritarian successor party regeneration; it is a standout instance of effective resource management by a state-owned enterprise; and it has achieved rapid economic development despite extremely high levels of corruption.

shortened version of the article was also published by Foreign Policy.

Loxton is senior lecturer in the Department of Government and International Relations at the University of Sydney in Australia. He is the author of Conservative Party-Building in Latin America: Authoritarian Inheritance and Counterrevolutionary Struggle (Oxford University Press, 2021).