University of Notre Dame
Hesburgh Center/Kellogg Institute Hesburgh Center/Kellogg Institute Hesburgh Center/Kellogg Institute Hesburgh Center/Kellogg Institute Hesburgh Center/Kellogg Institute Hesburgh Center/Kellogg Institute

Jeffrey H. BergstrandJeffrey H. Bergstrand

Professor of Finance
(PhD, University of Wisconsin, 1981)
367 Mendoza College of Business

Geographic focus: International Economics

Thematic interests: International trade flows; economic integration agreements; foreign direct investment and multinational firms; exchange rates and international finance.

Selected Publications:

  • "Preliminary Examination of the Heterogeneous Effects on International Trade of Economic Integration Agreements" (with Scott Baier and Matthew Clance), in Andreas Dur and Manfred Elsig, eds., Trade Cooperation: The Purpose, Design and Effects of Preferential Trade Agreements" (Cambridge University Press, 2015)

  • "Economic Integration Agreements and the Margins of International Trade" (with Scott Baier and Michael Feng), Journal of International Economics 93, 2 (July 2014)

  • "Governance and Globalisation" (with Koen Berden and Eva van Etter), The World Economy 37, 3 (March 2014)

  • "Economic Determinants of Free Trade Agreements Revisited: Distinguishing Sources of Interdependence" (with Scott Baier and Ronald Mariutto), Review of International Economics 22, 1 (February 2014)

  • "Shouldn't Physical Capital Also Matter for Multinational Enterprise Activity?" (with Peter Egger), Review of International Economics 21, 5 (November 2013)

  • "What Determines BITs?" (with Peter Egger), Journal of International Economics 90, 1 (May 2013)

  • "Gravity Redux: Estimation of Gravity-Equation Coefficients, Elasticities of Substitution, and General Equilibrium Comparative Statics under Asymmetric Bilateral Trade Costs" (with Peter Egger), Journal of International Economics 89,1 (January 2013)

  • “Gravity Equations and Economic Frictions in the World Economy” (with Peter Egger), in Daniel Bernhofen, Rod Falvey, David Greenaway, and Udo Kreickemeier, Eds., Palgrave Handbook of International Trade (Palgrave Macmillan Publishing, 2011)

  • “Estimating the Effects of Free Trade Agreements on International Trade Flows using Matching Econometrics” (with Scott Baier), and “Bonus Vetus OLS: A Simple Method for Approximating International Trade-Cost Effects using the Gravity Equation” (with Scott Baier), both in Journal of International Economics 77, 1 (February 2009)

  • "Do Economic Integration Agreements Actually Work? Issues in Understanding the Causes and Consequences of the Growth of Regionalism," (with Scott L. Baier, Peter Egger, Patrick A. McLaughlin), The World Economy 31, 4 (April 2008)

  • "Trade Costs," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd ed., 2008)

  • "A Knowledge-and-Physical-Capital Model of International Trade Flows, Foreign Direct Investment, and Multinational Enterprises," (with Peter Egger), Journal of International Economics 73 (November 2007)

  • "Free Trade Agreements In the Americas: Are the Trade Effects Larger than Anticipated?" (with Scott L Baier, Erika Vidal), The World Economy 30 (September 2007)

  • "The New Regionalism: Causes and Consequences," (with Scott Baier, Peter Egger), Integration and Trade/Inter-American Development Bank (Winter 2007)

  • “Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members’ International Trade?” (with Scott L. Baier), Journal of International Economics 71 (March 2007)

Selected videos:


NSF-Kellogg Institute Data Base on Economic Integration Agreements

For decades, researchers have explored the economic and political effects of economic integration agreements (EIAs) on the intensity of countries’ international trade and/or political conflict. More recently, social scientists have explored economic and political determinants of EIAs between countries.  EIAs take the form of one-way and two-way preferential trade agreements, free trade agreements, customs unions, common markets, and economic unions.  In 2004, sponsored by a National Science Foundation grant, Kellogg Faculty Fellow and Department of Finance Professor Jeffrey H. Bergstrand (with co-investigator Professor Scott L. Baier of Clemson University) began constructing a large data base indexing the degree of economic integration between nearly every pair of countries in the world for every year.  Since 2009, the Kellogg Institute has provided support through its International Scholars Program for continued construction of the data base, which currently indexes annually EIAs between every pairing of 195 countries from 1950-2011.

Besides its scope, the NSF-Kellogg Institute EIA data base has several unique features:

(1) While most other similar data bases use a binary (0-1) variable to index the absence or presence of an EIA, our data base in Excel format uses a multichotomous index (0-6), with the following interpretations (described in detail in the data base):
0 denotes no existing Economic Integration Agreement
1 denotes a One-Way Preferential Trade Agreement
2 denotes a Two-Way Preferential Trade Agreement
3 denotes a Free Trade Agreement
4 denotes a Customs Union
5 denotes a Common Market
6 denotes an Economic Union

(2) While other similar data bases assign an index value for country-pairs for each year, our data base includes PDF copies of the original treaties determining the index value for over 98 percent of the cell entries.  Whenever an index becomes positive (or its positive value changes), the Excel sheet cell entry is “hyper-linked” to the PDF copy of the treaty (or, for less than 2 percent of cells, to other documentation for the EIA).

(3) The 195 countries that we follow for our data base were determined by external information about when the countries “began.”  For many cells, several of the countries did not exist until after 1950 or a subsequent year.  When a country comes into existence, we “hyper-link” the previous year’s country-pair cell to a PDF documenting that existence.

The link below is to a zip file of the EIA data base.  We recommend saving the zip file to a hard disk, and then “Extract” the files to a new folder.

Database on Economic Integration Agreements (May 2011)

Database on Economic Integration Agreements (May 2013)

Database on Economic Integration Agreements (September 2015)

Database on Economic Integration Agreements (May 2017)




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