Khan Asfandyar Shairani is PhD candidate in History and Peace Studies. His current research traces the development of Muslim Chinese identity in the context of the Qing imperial state in China. He is interested in cross-regional interactions and educational networks between China, India, and the Middle East and how they contributed to a sense of ‘Muslim-ness’ as global ideas of nation, modernity, and religion permeated the 19th century zeitgeist. Khan also researches colonialism and its role in the development of modern ‘democratic’ and ‘secular’ states in Asia, particularly India, Pakistan, and China. Khan is a Presidential Fellow.